Basic Idea – Light travels in a straight line, and the image was inverted.

When Mozi (470 BC – 390 BC) observed rays of light falling on the walls of a dark room through a pinhole made on the opposite side, he perceived the outer world to be inverted.

Aristotle, a Greek Philosopher (384-322 BCE), discovered that by passing sunlight through a pinhole, he could create an inverted image of the Sun on the ground.

Al-Haythami (Alhazen), who lived from 965 to 1039, developed the theory that light moves in straight lines and is known as “rays”.

Pinhole Camera

First Stage | Experiment

A pinhole camera is a camera in the shape of a box that without a lens. One of the sides of the camera has a pinhole-sized opening to focus all light rays and produce an inverted image on the opposite side of the hole.

ഒരു പെട്ടിയുടെ ആകൃതിയിലുള്ള ലെൻസ് ഇല്ലാത്ത ക്യാമറയാണ് പിൻഹോൾ ക്യാമറ. ക്യാമറയ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ ദ്വാരത്തിന്റെ എതിർ വശത്ത് ഒരു വിപരീത ചിത്രം ലഭിക്കുന്നതിന് എല്ലാ പ്രകാശകിരണങ്ങളും ഫോക്കസ് ചെയ്യുന്നതിനായി ഒരു വശത്ത് ഒരു പിൻഹോൾ വലുപ്പമുള്ള ഒരു ഓപ്പണിംഗ് ഉണ്ട്.

Drawbacks

  1. The camera’s larger size made it difficult to carry.
  2. The resulting image was inverted (upside down).
  3. The material may only be used once.
  4. To obtain a copy of an image, it is necessary to repeat the procedure each time with a new medium.

Camera Obscura

Second Stage | Major Developments

Leonardo da Vinci (1450-1519) proposed that the human eye resembles a camera obscura. He then published the first comprehensive description of the camera obscura in the Codex Atlanticus (1502).

Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615) added a convex lens near the entrance of the pinhole. Della Porta popularised an improved camera obscura, and painters used his technique to depict actual scenes on canvas.

Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) coined the term “camera obscura” in 1604, when he constructed the first portable camera obscura in the form of a tent.

Room Camera Obscura – First Experiement

Portable Camera Obscura – Carried on two wooden poles

Camera Obscura – Added lens and mirror

A camera obscura is a darkened room with a small hole or lens at one side through which an image is projected onto a wall or table opposite the hole. The term “CAMERA OBSCURA” is derived from the Latin camera (chamber) and obscura (darkness). The Ancient Greek word for camera is kamara, which means “anything with an arched cover or roof, a covered carriage, a vaulted chamber, or a vault.” The first type of camera resembled a chamber or room. It was determined that inserting a lens into the hole would result in a sharper, clearer image. This technology, known as “camera obscura,” was frequently used by artists to sketch objects more quickly and alleviate the difficulties associated with depth perception. The image was projected onto a sheet of paper within a dark box, and the artist would then trace the image’s contours.

ഒരു വശത്ത് ചെറിയ ദ്വാരമോ ലെൻസുകളോ ഉള്ള ഇരുണ്ട മുറിയാണ് ക്യാമറ ഒബ്‌സ്‌ക്യൂറ, അതിലൂടെ ഒരു ചിത്രം ദ്വാരത്തിന് എതിർവശത്തുള്ള ഒരു ഭിത്തിയിലോ മേശയിലോ പ്രൊജക്റ്റ് ചെയ്യുന്നു. “ക്യാമറ ഒബ്‌സ്‌ക്യൂറ” എന്ന പദം ലാറ്റിനിൽ നിന്നാണ് വന്നത് – ക്യാമറ എന്നാൽ ചേംബർ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ബെഡ്‌ചേംബർ (റൂം), ഒബ്‌സ്‌ക്യൂറ എന്നാൽ ‘ഇരുട്ട്’. പുരാതന ഗ്രീക്കിൽ – ക്യാമറ എന്നാൽ കമാര അല്ലെങ്കിൽ “കമാനാകൃതിയിലുള്ള കവർ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ മേൽക്കൂരയുള്ള എന്തും, ഒരു മൂടിയ വണ്ടി, ഒരു നിലവറയുള്ള അറ, ഒരു നിലവറ”). ആദ്യത്തെ തരം ക്യാമറ ഒരു മുറിയോ അടച്ച അറയോ പോലെയായിരുന്നു. 1400-കളിൽ തന്നെ, ദ്വാരത്തിൽ ഒരു ലെൻസ് തിരുകുന്നത് കൂടുതൽ വ്യക്തമായ ഒരു ചിത്രം സൃഷ്ടിക്കുമെന്ന് കണ്ടെത്തി. “ക്യാമറ ഒബ്‌സ്‌ക്യൂറ” എന്ന് വിളിക്കപ്പെടുന്ന ഈ സാങ്കേതികവിദ്യ പലപ്പോഴും കലാകാരന്മാർ ഒബ്‌ജക്‌റ്റുകൾ വേഗത്തിൽ വരയ്ക്കാനും ആഴത്തിലുള്ള ധാരണയിലെ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുകൾ ലഘൂകരിക്കാനും ഉപയോഗിച്ചു. ഒരു ഇരുണ്ട ബോക്സിനുള്ളിൽ ഒരു കടലാസിൽ ചിത്രം പ്രൊജക്റ്റ് ചെയ്യാൻ അനുവദിച്ചു, കൂടാതെ ആർട്ടിസ്റ്റ് പ്രൊജക്റ്റ് ചെയ്ത ചിത്രത്തിന്റെ ഔട്ട്ലൈനുകൾ കണ്ടെത്തും.

In 1572, the German mathematician Friedrich Risner (ca. 1533–1580) proposed a portable camera obscura drawing aid consisting of a lightweight wooden hut with lenses in each of its four walls that would project images of the surroundings onto a paper cube in the centre. The structure could be transported on two wooden poles, similar to a royal litter. The room-type camera obscura was reduced to a small, portable room that was still a very large box. Most authors date the first appearance of box-type camera obscuras — devices in which the lens, the mirror, and the screen onto which the image was projected were enclosed in a small wooden box — to the middle of the seventeenth century.

The use of a mirror in conjunction with the camera obscura was first suggested by the Venetian Ettore Ausonio in his manuscript Theorica speculi concavi sphaerici (1520–1570). In 1585, Giovanni Battista Benedetti (1530–1585) proposed using a mirror at a 45-degree angle to the direction of light emanating from the lens to correct the image.

Portable Camera

3rd Stage Major Developments

In 1839, Daguerreotype cameras were manufactured.

In 1900, George Eastman Kodak debuted the Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera.

Kodak 3A Autographic, introduced in 1916, was the first rangefinder camera.

The German company Franke & Heidecke debuted the Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex roll-film camera in 1928.

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre was a French artist and photographer renowned for his invention of the eponymous daguerreotype process of photography.

George Eastman was an American entrepreneur. He was born on July 12, 1854, in Waterville, New York. In 1880, he opened the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company, he founded the Eastman Kodak Company.

Rangefinder camera

Never look through the lens when using a Rangefinder camera. Identical to a disposable camera, you compose and focus through a window on the top right. The rangefinder looks through the small window on the left. As the focus ring is turned, it triangulates, bringing two images into perfect focus-correlation.

Twin Lens Reflex Camera

TLR is a type of camera with two identically focal length objective lenses. One of the lenses is the photographic objective or “taking lens” (the lens that captures the image), while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is typically viewed at waist level from above.

Polaroid Camera

Inventor and founder of the Polaroid Corporation, Edwin H. Land, created the first instant camera (Model 95) in 1948 as a hobby during World War II.

Digital Camera

Steve Sasson, a Kodak engineer, invented the first digital camera in 1975. It took 23 seconds to capture a single image using the camera (CCD), which was about the size of a breadbox. It captured 0.01-megapixel black-and-white images that were saved to a cassette tape.

Nikon

Founded on July 25, 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha “Japan Optical Industries Co., Ltd.”), the company was renamed to Nikon Corporation, after its cameras, in 1988.

The Nikkor brand was introduced in 1932,
Nikkor is the Nikon brand name for its lenses.

Nikkō, an abbreviation of the company’s original full name
Nikkō means “sunlight” and is the name of a Japanese town too.

Fuji

Fujifilm Holdings Corporation (Fujifuirumu Kabushiki-kaisha), trading as Fujifilm (stylized as FUJiFILM), or simply Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo.

Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. was established in 1934 with the aim of being the first Japanese producer of photographic films. Fuji Photo enjoyed a longtime near-monopoly on camera film in Japan.

Canon

The company was originally named Seikikōgaku kenkyūsho Precision Optical Industry Co. Ltd.) and was founded on 10 August 1937

In 1947 the company name was changed to Canon Camera Co., shortened to Canon in 1969.

The name Canon comes from Buddhist bodhisattva Guan Yin (Kannon in Japanese), previously transliterated as Kuanyin, Kwannon, or Kwanon in English.

Sony

The name “Sony” was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word “sonus”, which is the root of sonic and sound. Sony entered the market for digital single-lens reflex cameras in 2006 when it acquired the camera business of Konica Minolta. Sony rebranded the company’s line of cameras as its Alpha line.

The company’s slogans were 

The One and Only (1979–1982), 

It’s a Sony (1982–2006), 

Like.no.other (2006–2009)

Make. Believe (2009–2014)

Be Moved and the Current slogan is We are Sony.

Mirrorless camera bodies and lenses are undergoing a continuous process of innovation and new product introduction. Manufacturers are currently removing the materials mirror, pentaprism, Focus mirror, shutter, and CMOS sensor from their products.

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