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Fundamentals of Photography Summary


Draw backs of pinhole camera?

The lens of a pinhole camera has a diameter equal to the entire width of the camera. You can only use one tiny hole. The focal length of a pinhole camera refers to the distance between the lens and the film. Very long exposure times. Soft focus – Don’t expect a lot of detail. Limited subject matter due to the simplicity of the camera and the long exposures required.

Explain Camera Obscura?

The camera obscura, which is Latin for “dark chamber,” is made up of a dark chamber or box. A camera obscura is a small hole in one side or the top of a box, tent, or room. Light from an external scene passes through the hole and strikes an internal surface, where the scene is replicated, inverted (upside-down), and reversed (left to right), but colour and perspective are preserved.

What is Base Board Camera?

A medium/large format camera with a fold out baseboard that supports the lens board and bellows

What is pentaprism in Camera?

A pentaprism, sometimes known as a pentamirror, is a device that directs light into an optical viewfinder. Pentaprism is classified into two types: standard prism and roof Pentaprism. Roof pentaprism designs on DSLR cameras differ according to pricing. The pentamirror is found in the majority of entry-level DSLR cameras. They are a pentaprism-shaped hollow case. They are not made of solid glass, but rather of thin mirrors placed inside. Pentamirrors have the benefit of being lightweight and affordable. Pentaprism is used in all glass designs with pro-level DSLRs and properly treated surfaces.

What is Compound Lens?

A compound lens is an array of simple lenses connected by a common axis; the combination of many elements allows for the correction of more optical aberrations than a single element. Typically, lenses are constructed of glass or a clear plastic.

What is Terabite?

A terabyte (or TB) is a unit of data storage capacity that equals approximately one trillion bytes. A terabyte is typically used to refer to storage capacity or the size of stored data.

What is Nano Meters?

One nanometre equals one ten-billionth of a metre, which can be written as 1×10⁹ nm.

What is Catadioptric Lens?

A catadioptric lens is otherwise known as a “mirror lens” or “reflex lens”. They were first used in cameras in the early seventies. The lens is smaller than the normal tele lens because it uses a Cassegrain design. This design uses mirrors to fold the optical paths of the lights and reduces the physical lengths of the lenses. 

What is Petzval lenses?

The Petzval objective, also known as the Petzval lens, was the first photographic portrait objective lens in history. It was created in 1840 in Vienna by German-Hungarian mathematics professor Joseph Petzval, with technical assistance from Peter Wilhelm Friedrich von Voigtlander.

What is parallax in Photography?

The difference in an object’s apparent position is referred to as parallax. This means that the object’s true position does not change but appears to change when viewed from two different perspectives; this is especially noticeable when comparing two objects, one close and the other far away.

What is Photogrammetry?

Photogrammetry is a simple technique for surveying and mapping that implements photographs. It is the science that assists in obtaining important information about physical objects and the environment through the process of recording, interpreting, and measuring photographic images. It is a simple science of taking measurements from photographs.

What is Photogram?

A photogram is a photographic image created without the use of a camera by directly placing objects on the surface of a light-sensitive material, such as photographic paper, and then exposing it to light.

When is World Photography Day? Why we celeberate?

On August 19, 1839, the then-French government is also said to have purchased the patent for the device by paying the inventors and made it freely available for use throughout the world. From then on, August 19 became known as World Photography Day.

Explain World’s First Photograph?

In 1826, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce took the world’s first photograph with a camera. This photograph, titled simply “View from the Window at Le Gras,” is thought to be the world’s oldest surviving photograph.

What Heliography?

The photographic process is known as heliography, which derives from the Greek words helios (sun) and graphein (writing). Heliography was also used to photograph a scene directly from nature. Nicéphore Niepce invented the photographic process heliography. The first and earliest known permanent photograph, taken from a natural scene, was created using the Heliography process. “View from the Window at Le Gras,” a famous and iconic photograph by Niépce.

What is the process of Heliography?

The naturally occurring asphalt bitumen is used as a coating on glass or metal. This chemical then hardens in relation to the amount of light available. After that, the plate is washed with lavender oil.

Explain Daguerreotype process ?

Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, a French photographer, created the daguerreotype in 1839. The daguerreotype is a direct-positive process that produces a highly detailed image without the use of a negative on a sheet of copper that has been thinly coated with silver. The procedure needed to be done carefully. It was necessary to first clean and polish the silver-plated copper plate until the surface resembled a mirror. The daguerreotype process was developed by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre.

Explain calotype process ?

The calotype, the original negative and positive process invented by William Henry Fox Talbot, is sometimes referred to as a “Talbotype.” This method uses a paper negative to create a print with a softer, less sharp image than the daguerreotype, but because a negative is created, multiple copies can be made.

What is a Glass Plate Negative?

Glass plate negatives, as opposed to the thin, flexible negatives you may be familiar with, are exactly what they sound like: a negative printed on a glass plate. Glass plate negatives come in two varieties: collodion wet plate negatives and gelatin dry plate negatives.

What is wet collodion process?

The collodion process, also known as the “collodion wet plate process,” requires the photographic material to be coated, sensitised, exposed, and developed in about fifteen minutes, necessitating the use of a portable darkroom for use in the field.

What is Kodachrome?

Eastman Kodak introduced a colour reversal film called Kodachrome in 1935. It was one of the first successful colour materials, and it was used in both film and photography.

What is color Photography

Color photography is defined as photography that implements color-capable content. Black-and-white or gray monochrome photography, on the other hand, records only a single channel of luminance and uses media that can only display shades of grey.

What Is Film Photography?

Film photography is the art of photographing images on thin, transparent strips of plastic known as film. One side of the film strip is coated with a gelatin emulsion containing tiny silver halide crystals, which determine a photograph’s contrast and resolution.

What is Large format camera?

A large format camera has a frame that measures 4×5 inches or larger. Because 4×5 is the bare minimum, equipment may be referred to as a 4×5 camera. 8×10 film cameras are typically the largest and most detailed large format film cameras that do not require any additional enhancement when developing the image. In filmmaking, large format usually refers to 65mm and 70mm film stock (or digital equivalents).

Explain Medium format Camera?

Medium format refers to any camera format that uses 120-millimeter film or a digital sensor that mimics that size. This format captures images slightly smaller than those captured on large format film (102x127mm). However, they are significantly larger than images captured with full-frame sensors or 35 film.

What is Full frame Camera?

A full-frame camera has a sensor that is the same size as a 35 mm film camera (24 mm x 36 mm). The operation of a crop sensor. A crop sensor is smaller than a standard 35 mm sensor, so the photos taken by these cameras have a crop factor. This means that the photo’s edges will be cropped for a narrower field of view.

What Is 35mm Film?

The most common film gauge is 35 millimetre film (often abbreviated as 35mm), which refers to the width of the film strip. Photographer and Leica camera inventor Oskar Barnack introduced the 35mm format in the 1920s. Depending on the size of the image that the film produces, photographic film is classified as small-format or large-format. This distinguishes it from large-format, which produces 102mm x 127mm images, and medium-format, which produces between 24mm x 36mm images. The term “35mm” is also used to refer to 35mm film-only cameras.

Define Digital Image Sensor?

An image sensor is a device that allows the camera to convert photons (light) into electrical signals. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) are the two main categories of digital image sensors.

What is a sensor in a DSLR camera?

A sensor is the heart of every camera system in digital photography. It is a solid-state device that captures light entering the camera through the lens and processes it into a digital image.

What is bayer filter in Photography?

The Bayer filter, named after its inventor, Bryce Bayer, is a microfilter overlay for image sensors that enables photosensors to record both light wavelength and intensity. The most common of these filters is the Bayer filter, which can be found in almost all modern digital cameras that use a CCD or CMOS chip. The Bayer pattern devotes more pixels to green than to red and blue because the human eye is more sensitive to green.

Define Wide Angle Lens?

A wide-angle lens is any lens with a fixed or variable focal length that is shorter than the sensor or film’s length. A wide angle lens is one that has a short focal length and a large field of view. With a wide-angle lens, subjects closer to the camera will appear larger than subjects further away. Best for landscape photography, architecture photography, and city photography.

Define Fisheye Lens?

A wide-angle lens is a fisheye lens, but not all wide-angle lenses are fisheyes. Fisheye lenses are a type of wide-angle lens that shoots wide angles of up to 180 degrees. A Fisheye Lens is an ultra wide angle lens that distorts the scene or subject to produce a hemispherical (or wide panoramic) image.

What is vignetting in photography?

Vignetting occurs when the photo’s edges are darker or less saturated than the centre. Vignetting is also referred to as “light fall-off.” Vignetting is caused by optics or is purposefully added in post-processing to draw the viewer’s eye away from the distractions in the corner and towards the centre of the image.

What is Hyper Focal distance in Photography?

The hyperfocal length is the closest distance at where a lens can focus without blurring any object at infinity. At any given focus distance, everything from half of the hyperfocus distance away to infinity will be acceptable when using the hyperfocal setting.

The hyper focal distance is the distance between the camera lens and the subject. This distance determines how much of the background is included in the photo. A longer hyper focal distance means less of the background is captured, while a shorter hyper focal distance captures more of the background.

What is reciprocal rule in photography?

The Reciprocal Rule basically says that your shutter speed needs to be at least the inverse of your focal length. Even though it sounds a lot more complicated, it’s actually really easy. For example, if you’re shooting with a 50mm lens, your shutter speed should be 1/50.

What is ISO in Photography?

ISO refers to your camera’s sensitivity to light, whether it uses film or a digital sensor. A lower ISO value indicates less sensitivity to light, whereas a higher ISO indicates greater sensitivity.

What is Depth of Field?

The distance between the closest and farthest objects in a photograph that appears sharp is defined as depth of field. A shallow depth of field refers to a small focus area. The subject is oftenly in focus, while the background is blurred. A shallow depth of field focuses on a larger area of the image, often keeping everything sharp and clear. Depth of field, in more technical terms, is the distance in an image where objects appear “acceptably in focus” or have a level of “acceptable sharpness.”

What is the rule for Shutter Speed?

As a rule of thumb, your shutter speed should be twice (or more) the focal length of your lens. For example, if you’re using a 50mm lens, your shutter speed should be 1/100th sec or faster. When shooting with a 75mm lens, the shutter speed should be at least 1/150th sec.

What is Aperture?

In photography, aperture is the opening of the camera lens, which is proportional to the amount of light that reaches the image sensor. The mechanism in the lens that controls the amount of light entering is comprised of a series of opaque “blades” known as the diaphragm. When the blades are open, the camera sensor will capture more light; as the blades close, less light will reach the sensor. It is typically written as numbers such as 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, and 16. Lower f/stops provide more exposure because they represent larger apertures, whereas higher f/stops provide less exposure because they represent smaller apertures. A large aperture is a large lens opening that allows the lens to capture more light. Moreover, a small aperture is a narrow opening of the lens blades that does not permit the passage of much light.

What is Shutter Priority Mode?

Shutter priority (abbreviated as S on the mode dial), also known as time value (abbreviated as Tv), is a camera setting that allows the user to select a specific shutter speed while the camera adjusts the aperture to ensure proper exposure. When you need to control shutter speed but don’t care (much) about aperture, use shutter-priority mode. You choose the shutter speed, and the camera automatically adjusts the aperture to maintain proper exposure.

What is Aperture Priority mode?

Aperture priority is a camera mode in which you set the aperture manually while the camera chooses the shutter speed for you.

What is exposure compensation?

Exposure compensation is a method for modifying the exposure suggested by a photographic exposure metre to account for circumstances that may cause the stated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal picture.

What is Evaluate or Matrix metering mode?

In this mode, the scene is divided into grids (the exact number depends on the camera), and each grid is individually examined to determine the highlight and shadow detail. During this process, the zone(s) where the focus point is given slightly more weight. It then calculates an average, on which the recommended exposure is based. Depending on the manufacturer, this mode has different names. Canon refers to it as evaluative, while Nikon refers to it as Matrix and Sony refers to it as Multi-pattern. However, there is no difference in how they decide on exposure.

What is EV (Exposure Value) meter?

In photography, exposure value (EV) is a number that describes the relationship between light (aperture), time (shutter speed), and sensitivity (ISO). It represents the amount of light in the scene and indicates which settings will give you the proper exposure. The EV value represents the amount of light in front of your camera. The intensity of light reflected off a scene or subject has a specific brightness value, which is measured by a camera’s light metre.

What is Manual Focus?

When a photographer uses manual focus, they manually focus their lens to select what is in focus in the frame.

What is White Balance?

White balance refers to adjusting the color temperature of an image based on the ambient light conditions. This can be done manually using the white balance button on most cameras or automatically with software such as Adobe Lightroom.White balance refers to adjusting the color temperature of an image based on the ambient light conditions. This can be done manually using the white balance button on most cameras or automatically with software such as Adobe Lightroom.

What is Picture Style?

Picture styles are a set of options that allow you to apply in-camera processing to photos. It’s a piece of editing software that’s built right into your camera. Picture styles alter your image’s sharpness, contrast, saturation, and colour tone. These settings, like editing programmes, have a slider.

What is the difference between f/2.8 and f/16?

The f-stops function as inverse values, so a small f/number (say, f/2.8) corresponds to a larger or wider aperture size, resulting in a shallow depth of field; a large f/number (say, f/16) corresponds to a smaller or narrower aperture size, resulting in a deeper depth of field. The difference between the two numbers (f/2-f/16) is six stops.

What is Exposure in Photography?

The amount of light that reaches your camera’s sensor or film is referred to as exposure in photography. In photography, a good exposure is generally the right combination of aperture, shutter speed, and ISO that best reflects the subject you are attempting to photograph.

What is Over and Under Exposure?

Exposure is the measurement of the amount of light that reaches the film or camera sensor when a photograph is taken. How bright or dark the final photograph will be is determined by the exposure. Overexposure occurs when too much light strikes the film or, in the case of a digital camera, the sensor. Photos that are overexposed are too bright, lack detail in their highlights, and appear washed out. Underexposure is the result of an insufficient amount of light striking the film strip or camera sensor. Underexposed photographs are too dark, lack detail in the shadows, and appear murky.

What is Metering? Types of Metering Modes in Camera?

Metering is the process by which a camera evaluates the amount of reflected light in a scene and calculates what it believes is the correct exposure. The camera does this by assuming that the brightness of the scene should be 18% reflectivity of a specific level of grey. If it calculates the scene to be more than 18% grey, the image will be overexposed; if it calculates it to be less than 18% grey, the image will be underexposed. DSLR and Mirrorless has an integrated light metre that automatically measures the reflected light and determines the optimal exposure. Matrix Metering (Nikon), Multi Pattern (Sony), also known as Evaluative Metering (Canon), Center-weighted Metering, Partial Metering, and Spot Metering are the metering modes.

What is Zone system in Photography?

The Zone System is an eleven-tone scale. The darkest is pure black, while the lightest is pure white. Zone 0 is black, while Zone X is white. Each grey value between these two extremes differs by one photographic stop from the grey tone on either side. Zone III is therefore one stop darker than Zone IV and one stop lighter than Zone II. Zone VII is one stop darker than Zone VIII, and Zone VI is one stop lighter, and so on. Ansel Adams and Fred Archer, two of the most famous photographers in history, created the Zone System.

What is silhouette photography?

A silhouette is a photograph of a subject that is solid and black against a brighter background. The key to successful silhouette photography is proper lighting. When a light source is positioned behind your subject, with little to no light in front of your subject, a silhouette effect is formed. If your subject is completely backlit, you may create a beautiful, sharp silhouette photo with the appropriate camera settings. Early in the morning or late in the day, when the sun is on the horizon, are the ideal times of day for silhouette photography.

What is Histogram in Photography?

A histogram is a graphical representation of your image’s tonal values. In other words, it displays the number of tones of a specific brightness in your photograph, ranging from black (0 percent brightness) to white (100 percent brightness). The dark tones are shown on the histogram’s left side. Tones lighten as you move to the right. The histogram’s middle section represents midtones, which are neither dark nor light. A histogram’s vertical axis displays the number of tones of that particular lightness.

Explain Colour Wheel ?

The colour wheel, also known as a colour circle, is a circular arrangement of colours that are organised according to their chromatic relationship to one another. On the wheel, the primary colours are equally distant from each other, and secondary and tertiary colours sit between them. Red, Yellow, and Blue are the three primary colours. Orange, Green, and Violet are the three secondary colours. Red-Orange, Yellow-Orange, Yellow-Green, Blue-Green, Blue-Violet, and Red-Violet are the six Tertiary Colors formed by mixing a primary with a secondary.

What is Hue in Color?

The origin of the colours we see is referred to as hue. Hues are primary and secondary colours (Yellow, Orange, Red, Violet, Blue, and Green); however, tertiary colours (mixed colours in which neither colour is dominant) are also considered hues. Hue = Pure Color. A hue is the actual colour, such as green, blue, red, purple, etc.

What is Tint in Color?

A Tint is also known as a Pastel. It’s basically any colour with white added to it. Always start with white paint and gradually add small amounts of colour until you’ve achieved the desired tint. Hue + White = Tint. A “tint” occurs when white is added to a hue to lighten it.

What is Tone in Color?

A tone is created by combining white and black, which is grey. Tone refers to any colour that has been “greyed down.” Hue + Grey = Tone.A tone is created when grey is added to a hue.

What is Shade in Color?

A shade is simply any colour with black added to it.. There is no white or grey in it. The colour is darkened by the shade, but the hue remains the same.  A Shade is simply any color with black added. A “shade” is achieved by adding black to a hue to make it darker.

What is Primary Colors?

Primary colours cannot be mixed with other colours. They are the source of all other colours. Red, blue, and yellow are primary colours.

What is Secondary Colors?

Secondary colours are combinations of two primary colours among Red, Blue and Yellow. When any two primary colors are mixed, a secondary color is formed. Such as when Red and Blue are mixed, it forms Purple. Whereas when Red and Yellow colors are mixed, it forms Orange. Green color is formed when Yellow is mixed with Blue. Thus the secondary colours are Purple, orange and Green.

What is Tertiary Colors?

Tertiary or intermediate colours are combinations of primary and secondary colours. Color mixing can produce colour combinations such as blue-green, blue-violet, red-orange, red-violet, yellow-orange, and yellow-green.

What is Analogous Color Scheme?

Analogous colours are groups of three colours that are adjacent on the colour wheel, as well as a tertiary. Analogous colours are those that are next to each other on the colour wheel. Examples include red, orange, and red-orange.


What is the Sunny 16 rule in photography?

  1. Full frame sensor
  2. Micro and Macro Photography
  3. Slow Lens and Fast Lens
  4. Back button focus
  5. Linear focus mode
  6. Focus ring on a Camera
  7. What is T.Setting
  8. Raster Image Processor (RIP)
  9. Digital Process
  10. Draw backs of CCD
  11. Why firmware is not called software? 
  12. Bayer Filter Mosaic
  13. Processor in DSLR cameras
  14. How DSLR cameras are related to Human Eye?
  15. Analogue Colours
  16. Types of filters and its uses in Photography?
  17. Aperture and F-Numbers
  18. Types of Lenses
  19. Film and Digital Cameras
  20. Exposure Bracketing and Exposure Triangle
  21. Focal Length and perspective
  22. Zone System
  23. Capturing movement in Photography
  24. What are priority modes? Write their differences.
  25. Difference between TLR and SLR
  26. Explain the types of CCD sensors
  27. What is focal length? Write the relation between focal length and perspective, angle of view.
  28. Pinhole camera and camera obscura
  29. Longitudinal and Lateral Chromatic Aberration.
  30. What happens when the camera is set above 5500K?
  31. Shutter speed and its creative use in Photography
  32. Write about any one Legendary Photographer
  33. Factors controlling Depth of Field
  34. F-stops in Photography
  35. Tetradic and Triadic color schemes
  36. Any three Picture style presets in DSLR
  37. Exposure Bracketing
  38. Factors controlling Exposure
  39. Split complimentary and Complementary color scheme
  40. Types and uses of filters in Photography
  41. Exposure Bracketing
  42. Exposure Triangle
  43. Hue, Saturation, Brightness and Contrast of color
  44. Auto Focus
  45. Depth of Field
  46. Zone System for Digital
  47. Creative Use of Shutter Speed


  1. Difference between TLR and SLR
  2. Describe the functions of wireless multiple flash
  3. What is the exposure triangle? Explain its component.
  4. What is focal length?
  5. Difference between aperture and f-stop
  6. What is difference between manual and auto mode
  7. Film type cameras
  8. Digital type cameras
  9. Evolution from pinhole cameras to Daguerreo type cameras
  10. Difference between Full Frame and Half Frame DSLR Camera
  11. Structure and Working of Mirrorless Camera Technology
  12. Structure and working of Conventional DSLR camera
  13. Explain the basic anatomy of a DSLR camera using diagram?
  14. Different types of Cameras.
  15. Write about the properties of Colour and its imporance in photography
  16. Different types of Cameras.
  17. Write about the properties of Colour and its imporatance in Photography
  18. Will mobile cameras take over DSLR Cameras? Write your views.
  19. What is white Balance? Explain its settings.
  20. Write about your favorite photographer and his/her practice.
  21. Draw and explain the structure and working of DSLR and Mirrorless cameras.
  22. What are Concave and Convex lenses? Explain different types of Camera lenses.
  23. Daguerreotype Process and Kodachrome Process.
  24. What is Distortion in lens? Explain the types of distortions.
  25. Explain the working of CMOS sensors.
  26. Write about your favorite photographer and his/her works.
  27. Draw and explain the color wheel
  28. EV/ Exposure Value Chart
  29. High Dynamic Range and Techniques
  30. Distortion and types of Distortion in lens
  31. Four Basic Exposure modes in DSLR camera
  32. Focusing and its application.
  33. Picture style presets in DSLR
  34. Types of Lenses for DSLR camera
  35. Draw and explain the Anatomy of DSLR camera
  36. White Balance settings
  37. What is Aperture and F-numbers?
  38. Factors controlling Exposure.


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